- Design of learning activities to access web-based thematic dynamic resources
- Learning Design : a handbook on modelling and delivering networked education and training
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- Rob Koper - Google Scholar Citations
- Citations per year
Berlin: Springer. In March , thirty-three experts in e-learning from four continents met each other for the first time in Valkenburg aan de Geul, a small village in the south of The Netherlands.
Since then, the group, referred to as the Valkenburg Group, has met several times at different locations to explore how to improve the pedagogical quality of e-learning courses, in an interoperable way, with user-friendly tools. The general feeling of the experts was that most of the current e-learning offerings lack one or more of these aspects: they are of poor pedagogical quality, they lack portability, or they lack adequate tooling.
Pedagogical quality is considered to be the key issue. To be successful, e-learning must offer effective and attractive courses and programmes to learners, while at the same time providing a pleasant and effective work environment for staff members who have the task of developing course materials, planning the learning processes, providing tutoring, and assessing performance.
EML was the input for the development of the LD specification by IMS, a consortium of global e-learning software companies and users see imsglobal. With EML and LD, it is possible to develop and present advanced, interoperable e-learning courses that go beyond current implementations. The specifications were developed to describe an unlimited number of pedagogical approaches, both old and new, by abstracting from those described in the literature eg, the collection of models described by Reigeluth in and in Koper and Van Es in press tested the pedagogical flexibility of LD more systematically.
Their approach used an inventory of databases of pedagogical models available on the Internet also called "lesson plans", see Van Es for an overview. Sixteen lesson plans were randomly selected from these databases, covering a variety of designs based on different pedagogical traditions behaviorist, cognitive, social-constructivist. The lesson plans were all able to be coded in LD without any restrictions.
Learning Design provides a conceptual model for the description of teaching and learning processes. In a certain sense it works like a musical notation: it can capture the teaching and learning processes on paper.
Design of learning activities to access web-based thematic dynamic resources
This makes the design explicit, it can be reflected upon by the designers themselves or by others, and it can be further refined and shared within a community of course developers. This feature is expected to increase the quality of courses in the long run. As a result, the learning designs of courses are expressed in XML to make the course machine-readable.
This means that courses encoded using LD can be processed by runtime agents, making the delivery management of courses more efficient. In current e-learning systems, the teacher still has many mundane management tasks to perform to set up and maintain the environment.
This can be automated to a large extent using LD. The realisation of all these very desirable advantages of LD is, however, still a future perspective. The principles and standards are defined, but most of the tooling still has to be developed. It is exactly this aspect, namely the joint development of tools around LD, that has been the driving factor behind the Valkenburg Group. This book is one of the valuable resources used within this project, and some parts of the work of writing and editing this book were also sponsored by the UNFOLD project.
It is helpful to understand the 'where, why, when and how' that went into the development of the concepts that inform LD.
Learning Design : a handbook on modelling and delivering networked education and training
In , the Open University of the Netherlands made a strategic decision that e-learning would be central to its future in terms of helping to innovate institutes for higher education and to renew its own educational system by implementing new competency-based models of education, integrated into an electronic learning environment. The university had to confront the fact that many different pedagogical approaches are in use in higher education and its own institution. A key issue was how these many different approaches should be expressed and supported on-line.
Up to then, many interesting e-learning projects had provided innovative ways of support for particular pedagogical approaches, but were based on different systems, with different support needs, scalability, and other characteristics, each requiring its own integration effort with existing systems. The alternative of attempting to limit existing practice to the use of one or two pedagogical approaches was, if anything, even more problematic.
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In addition to surveying the pedagogical approaches actually in use within the university and its partners, the project team carried out extensive research into the variety of available pedagogical approaches, identifying over a hundred. The team then analysed these for common characteristics and, through a process of abstraction and experimentation, arrived at a 'pedagogical meta-language' that formed the base of EML.
EML evolved in several iterations over a further two-year period of development. The development of EML went through three complete cycles of specification development, implementation in prototype software, trialling with users, evaluation of results, and redesign of the specification and prototype software. A key aim throughout these three iterations was to achieve the right balance between being sufficiently general to support the desired range of pedagogies, while at the same time being sufficiently specific to be useful and capable of supporting what was needed.
EML v1. In , the specification was accepted as the basis for the development of the new IMS Learning Design specification, and after almost two years of work and debate, the final 1. It represents a vocabulary which users of any pedagogical approach understand, and into which existing designs can be translated.
Rob Koper - Google Scholar Citations
The core of LD can be summarised as the view that, when learning, people in specific groups and roles engage in activities using an environment with appropriate resources and services. Leader of new 5 year programme into Self-Organized Learning Networks. There, he investigated new technologies in the area of sales and marketing support systems, publishing several articles and participating in technology dissemination and consultancy exercises. In the mid-nineties, he moved into the software industry, working as Product Manager for a company specializing in XML-based support systems for knowledge-intensive processes.
In mid he joined The Open University of The Netherlands as an educational technologist, where his responsibilities cover work related to innovation in e-learning and learning technology standardisation. Rob Koper , Colin Tattersall.
Citations per year
An Introduction to Learning Design. How Are They Derived? The Learning Design Specification. An Architecture for the Delivery of Elearning Courses. An Architecture for Learning Design Engines. Learning Design Tools. Basic Design Procedures for Elearning Courses. Integrating Assessment into Elearning Courses. Designing Educational Games.