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Libraries portal. National Library of China. Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 16 June Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 2 March National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 5 June Zhongguo guo jia tu shu guan guan shi zi liao chang bian. Beijing Shi: Guo jia tu shu guan chu ban she. Tu shu zi liao zhuan ye ji shu zi ge kao shi fu dao zhi nan.
Read PDF China Mission: A Personal History from the Last Imperial Dynasty to the Peoples Republic
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China Education and Research Network. Ministry of Education China-U. At the same time, the Qing moved to cut off supplies to Galdan from oases in eastern Xinjiang, so that he could not rebuild his supplies. But the Qing troops could not advance any farther into Mongolia without overstraining their supply lines, so Galdan remained out of reach in the far west.
The emperor conceived of a plan to lure Galdan farther east, so that he could confront him in a decisive battle. In he set out with three armies across the Gobi Desert, heading for the monastery town of Urga, modern Ulan Bataar. The generals paid close attention to three crucial kinds of supplies: grain, transported by Chinese troops; horses, provided by Mongolian cavalry; and gunpowder weaponry, transported on camelback across the steppes. The emperor wrote letters back to his son in Beijing describing with enthusiasm the bracing conditions of campaigning in these remote regions.
Galdan did not know that three large armies were heading after him, and the emperor enticed him with promises of negotiations in order to ensure that he would not flee. Galdan, however, fled west, but ran into the 14, troops of the Manchu general Fiyanggu at the small valley of Jao Modo, just east of modern Ulaan Baatar. On June 12, , Fiyanggu gained a crushing victory over Galdan and his 5, men, forcing Galdan to abandon his army and run for his life.
Fiyanggu had nearly run out of grain supplies, so the battle took place at just barely the right time. Galdan himself, however, survived to fight another day. Despite his crushing defeat, he was still able to rebuild his forces in far western Mongolia. He did not confront Galdan again in battle, but Galdan himself died in suspicious circumstances most likely poisoned by dissident advisors in April Most of his followers, however, were pardoned and incorporated into Qing banners as bondservants, and his son became a member of the imperial bodyguard.
After completing his campaigns, the emperor commissioned historical projects to inscribe the official version into permanent memories. He fixed his narrative in print and in stone by But the story of the Zunghar resistance had not ended.
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His nephew, Tsewang Rabdan r. In the first twenty years of the 18th century, the battlefront was stable, but both sides explored further opportunities to gain allies and resources. The Russians learned of the presence of gold in Yarkand, an oasis under Zunghar control, and sent an expedition there, but the Zunghars doubted their friendly intentions and drove them out.
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Russia instead turned its intentions toward gaining profits from fur caravans to Beijing. Meanwhile, the Qing scouted out opportunities for further Mongolian alliances, sending the Manchu envoy Tulisen on a far-ranging mission through Russian territory to the banks of the Volga River, where he attempted to win over Ayuki Khan, whose Torghut Mongols had broken away from the Zunghar domination in the midth century. It was a time of mutual suspicion, intelligence gathering, and searches for allies. Further expanding their spatial horizons, Qing forces invaded Tibet in , taking advantage of a schism among the Mongols supporting the Lamas in Lhasa.
They also captured a young boy whom they promoted as the Panchen Lama under their control. Tsewan Rabdan, for his part, moved east to confront the Qing at the eastern oases of Hami and Turfan. The Qing warded off his attacks, but were not able to advance farther into Xinjiang. The death of the Kangxi emperor in , and the disputed politics of his succession, meant that Qing incursions into Tibet and Xinjiang had limited permanent results.
But the new Yongzheng emperor won out over his brother, who had been out of the capital campaigning when the Kangxi emperor died.
In this way, the frontier campaigns affected not only the territory but also the leadership of the empire. The Yongzheng emperor r. He is best known for his fiscal reforms, which aimed to reduce informal surcharges and instill honesty into the officials and their tax-collecting agents.
But his frontier policies also had unexpected results. Although the emperor wanted to consolidate forces, withdrawing them from indefensible outposts, he, like his father, ended up conducting a tug of war with Tsewang Rabdan over the loyalty of the Muslims of Turfan. The Zunghar leader tried to move them westward, while the Qing tried to move them eastward. At the same time, Qing forces intervened in a civil war in Qinghai, the site of the great Taersi monastery, obtaining a decisive victory over local Mongolian forces.
Despite his original intentions, Yongzheng found himself promoting an aggressive, expansive foreign policy against the resistance of his best generals, and at first he seemed to have obtained stunning results. The succession of Galdan Tseren to power in seemed to offer another golden opportunity to eliminate the Zunghar state. In Yongzheng sent his best generals far into western Mongolia and to Urumqi in Xinjiang, in an ambitious drive to capture the western regions. But his general marched into a trap and suffered a disastrous ambush at Khobdo, losing 80 percent of his army and all of his Mongolian allies.
The emperor, in despair, wailed that heaven had abandoned him. Galdan Tseren, for his part, however, was not able to take advantage of his victory, so a stalemate ensued. Yongzheng offered truce negotiations in the last year before his death. From the s to , after the new Qianlong emperor took power in China, a stalemate ensued. The Qing shifted their tactics from military expeditions to the use of trade and tribute to obtain leverage on the Mongols and their allies. For their part, to shore up their fragile state, the Zunghars desperately searched for allies among lamas in Lhasa, traders in Central Eurasia, and Russia.
The new Qianlong emperor r. The Zunghars brought products of the steppes: animals like horses, sheep, cattle, and camels, furs, medicinal products, and dried grapes, in exchange for Chinese brocades, tea, and if necessary silver. The Qing limited the size of embassies and prohibited the export of gunpowder, metals, and weaponry.
These regulations followed those which applied to the Russian caravan trade, Koreans, and other neighbors. Soon, the border trade at Suzhou in western Gansu leapt beyond official limits, drawing in merchants from the Central Eurasian oases. The officials also loaned sums to the border merchants to give them the necessary capital, just as they would later do with the Hong merchants in Canton.
The Zunghars could specify the goods they wanted so that merchants had an assured outlet for them. Although Qing regulations tried to limit the outflow of silver, the opportunities for profit were so promising that officials themselves bought Zunghar goods with silver supplies.
This trade route, which passed through Qing territory in Qinghai, allowed Zunghar Mongols and their Central Eurasian merchants to carry goods from Mongolia to Tibet, and to present gifts to lamas along the route. The Zunghar leaders, who gained intelligence from their meeting with the lamas and profits from selling their goods, constantly pressed to expand the missions, but the Qing authorities insisted on careful supervision and limitation of their access to other Mongols and Tibetans.
Yet despite mutual suspicions, the manja trade flourished during this brief time period, as it suited the long-term goals of both sides.